Tuesday, June 30, 2020

The U.S. police force - 825 Words

The U.S. police force (Essay Sample) Content: The U.S Law Enforcers as the Policemen of the World HIS105 11/22/15 The U.S Law Enforcers as the Policemen of the World Introduction The United States is termed as the world's superpower. While there are many factors that have contributed to the country having the title, its high level of military and policing capabilities is the main issue that has also seen the country earning the title "policemen of the world." As a result, the US has been involved in many military and policing issues outside of its borders. The main purpose of this paper is to review events and situations that led to the US being termed as the policemen of the world as well as some incidences within the last five years when the US used military action abroad. Two International Events from the Past Five Years that Can Be Traced back to a Foreign Policy Created after the Civil War The US Military Involvement in Afghanistan Combat Mission in 2011 After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the U.S sent its troops to Afghanistan in an attempt to eliminate possible Taliban targets in the country; it was an activity that lasted till the year 2011. Besides, the U.S Army was to aid the training of the Afghan National Army in the fight against the same group (Tardelli, 2014). The US Military Involvement in Iraq in 2008- 2012 The U.S soldiers invaded Iraq to end Saddam Hussein's regime that was suspected of allowing the construction of WMD's used in terrorism activities. This move also aimed at driving terrorists out of Iraq and free the Iraq people from oppressive leadership. Once the weapons were discovered, they were destroyed by the U.S. troops (Tardelli, 2014). Three Factors in the U.S. History since 1865 that Have Led to the Rise of the U.S. Police Force to Become a World's Superpower The US citizens control high levels of economy, thus providing stability. Therefore, they are in control a greater percentage of investments in the US, thus reducing the level of interference of US decisions. With a stable economic base, the U.S government can invest heavily in different military and police agencies. The force has the ability to financially aid all its activities without external intervention. Dependency on other bodies for aid would lead to interference of these agencies' operations; other countries would like to impose their ideas about how the agencies' are supposed to operate (Sargent, 2015). The US has over the time built and developed strong partnership relationships and friendship with other countries which invite the US military to get involved in their security and anti-terrorism affairs. The U.S has been supportive to many countries with regards to economic development, finance and security issues. It has improved the relationship between the U.S and other countries who invite it to form military bases in their countries (Sargent, 2015). This way, it has been able to develop a wide military basein many world countries. The US has developed an extremely skilled, resourceful and wealthy military and police agency than anyone else in the whole world. The U.S governments set aside ample revenue for financing the policing activities. The recruitment procedures are outlined in a manner that the police are adequately trained for the task force ahead of them. With adequate resources and the needed skills, the U.S has continued to produce a strong army compared to other countries in the world (Sargent, 2015). Five International Events that Have Occurred after World War II in which the U.S has Undertaken Policing Roles The US Policing Role in Korea, 1946 In the year 1945, the Soviet Union invaded Korea with an aim of seizing some of its regions and also spread communism. The U.S intervened to stop the spread of communism and also defend Korea from external aggression. The former wanted to defend Korea since it was a sovereign state, and it wanted to aid it in reunification using its formulated rules. The US Policing Role in Lebanon, 1958 The U.S military invaded Lebanon due to political upheavals that had been caused by religious and political tension. The U.S played a crucial diplomatic part by encouraging discussions between these aggressive adversaries. Besides, the presence of the U.S army in the region hindered political upheavals. This way, a likely civil war was avoided in Lebanon between Christian, Muslim and political activists. The US Policing Role in Panama Canal, 1978 During the cold war era, there was tension that communist ideas would spread at Panama, which was previously under the U.S control. In 1978, treaties were signed between the U.S and Panama to pass the autonomy of the canal to Panama (Smith, 2010). The U.S army ensured that this was peacefully executed and defended the region against external aggression. The US Policing Role in Somalia, 1990 Following the political turmoil that was present in Somalia caused by rebel groups, the U.S forces moved to the country in 1990. The police led operations to offer humanitarian assistance, secure all relief centers and provide political effort to end the wars. The U.S police secured many civilians from the political wars and offered them the necessary aid (Smith, 2010). The US Policing Role in Libya, 2011 Libya citizens' demonstrated for democracy, after what the government reacted by attacking them. The U.S termed these acts to be a crime against humanity. The U.S deployed its forces to Libya in 2011 to protect the citizens (Tardelli, 2014). Besides, the U.S police tried to advocate for democracy in the re...

Navigating 529 Plans Through a Rough Market

Financial Professional Content The stock market certainly hasn't been kind to investors so far this year. In fact, U.S. stocks broke a record for biggest fall during the first five days of January, and experts predict we can expect more volatility to come. So what does that mean for your clients with long-term investments like retirement and college savings plans? How you can you provide proper guidance to families who are tempted to make a drastic change based on fear? We asked three experts from the college savings industry about how their customers have been reacting when they saw their 529 plan balances drop, and the approach they recommend for this type of environment. Here's what they had to say: Reactions to volatility What types of reactions has the industry been seeing from families saving for college? According to Keith Bernhardt, Vice President of College Planning at Fidelity Investments, "Fidelity's call volumes have been up modestly during the past few weeks. When the markets are volatile and dropping, investors call seeking answers. They express concern, but not panic, and most are checking their account balances and seeking guidance, but they remain invested," he said. "During the last bout of market volatility back in August, we saw a slight uptick in customers reaching out to discuss their overall financial plans. Market disruption often reminds consumers to take action, and to put a plan in place to achieve their financial goals, including saving for college," he commented. Daniel Reyes, Principal, Advised Portfolio Solutions at Vanguard, and his team recognize that market volatility is on the minds of investors and are thinking of ways to provide guidance to college savers. What's more, volatility can be surprising for families saving for college, especially if they've chosen an age-based option within a 529 plan. "What's interesting about this particular spurt of volatility in the markets is that we've come off of a stretch over the last several years of relatively tame, relatively placid markets, and so the volatility that they're seeing right now relative to what their experience was over the last five years or so seems magnified," he says. David Malone, Director of Investment Management at Ascensus, the leading administrator of 529 college savings plans, points out that some investors may even be tempted to make changes in their portfolio based on fear. "Some market participants, compelled by fear, sell risky assets during times of trouble. Should 529 plan participants sell when market indices precipitously slide, or should they use periods of market volatility to re-evaluate circumstances before making any significant changes to their child's portfolio?" he asks. RELATED: When should you switch 529 plans? Recommendations That being said, what should you recommend to clients to ease their minds during market uncertainty? Malone suggests that investors should start by jotting down answers to a few key questions: How long has it been since you evaluated your college planning? How old is your child now? Have college plans changed? Have income, assets, or gifts to your children changed significantly? With how much turbulence can you, as a parent, stomach? "Relying on the realities of your situation instead of financial news cyclesï ¿ ½whether positive or negativeï ¿ ½can keep you grounded and focused when considering portfolio changes. It can also help you avoid making rash decisions that are based on your personal perceptions of the market's behavior," he recommends. "If your child has aged by more than a couple of years, a prudent and reasonable plan of action is to reassess your level of risk." Malone also notes that it's also important to reassess the entire family's college plan, especially if family dynamics have changed. "Consider updating all beneficiaries in all accounts to align your expected college needs with expected college needs. If this change is viable, adjustments to the portfolio should match the profile of the new beneficiary," he says. RELATED: A shortcut to comparing 529 investment option details "If your static allocation options have existed without review for a long period, then this market turbulence should give reason for you to review its appropriateness. During this review, you may consider evaluating where you are today, versus when you first invested. If your child is approaching or in college, then 529 plan assets should shift from risky assets to safer assets." Reyes advises investors to try and remain calm this year, and to try and accept that volatility is a normal part of investing. "We're always trying to tell our investors, as much as they possibly can, to tune out as much noise as they can, and try to separate the emotional part of investing," he says. According to recent analysis from Vanguard, since 1980 equity markets have seen on average a correction or bear market every two years. Global stock prices (January 1, 1980ï ¿ ½January 22, 2016) Declines Number Average return Average time from peak to trough Average time from trough to recovery Correction 12 ï ¿ ½13.7% 87 days 121 days Bear market 7 ï ¿ ½33.4% 373 days 798 days Source: Vanguard.com Reyes also reminds investors to stay focused on things they can really control, like the asset allocation in their college savings plan. "Make sure your allocations are appropriate for your time horizon and the amount of risk you're willing to take on," he says. That's easy to do if the investor is using an age-based option within a 529 plan, since an asset allocation strategy is built into the design. But for those managing their own investments who aren't sure where to start, Reyes recommends looking at the age-based options for a beneficiary of the same age as a reference point. Bernhardt also notes the benefits of investing in an age-based option during a volatile market. "Investors in target date strategies like Fidelity Freedom Funds (targeting retirement) and college 529 age-based portfolios tend to worry less about the fluctuations in the market and focus more on maintaining regular contributions. Because target date strategies are designed to get more conservative as the goal approaches, the investor can rely upon the fund manager and the design of the plan to reduce risk and equity exposure as the target date nears ï ¿ ½ in the case of 529 plans, as their child, or other beneficiary, gets closer to college age," he says. RELATED: Savingforcollege.com age-based asset allocation study Closing thoughts To reduce the amount of investment changes clients make within their college savings plans, Bernhardt suggests recommending age-based investment options. "By contributing regularly to a target date strategy, investors can remove some of the emotion that frequently paralyzes those who don't have a well thought out plan," he says. Malone also points out that change isn't always a bad thing. "In some cases, revamping 529 assets during a period of negative returns may very well be the right path. My suggestion is to let factsï ¿ ½not fearsï ¿ ½help you find the right solution. Keeping a balanced investment outlook is hard. Maintaining a prudent 529 plan does not need to be," he says. Reyes stresses the importance of discipline in a shaky market. He tells families to "resist the urge to make a dramatic change to their asst allocation," adding that this is one of the most important decisions investors can make. What's more, investors need to maintain their contributions amounts to take advantage of Dollar-Cost Averaging, which can help dampen the volatility over time. RELATED: How satisfied are consumers with their 529 plans? Financial Professional Content The stock market certainly hasn't been kind to investors so far this year. In fact, U.S. stocks broke a record for biggest fall during the first five days of January, and experts predict we can expect more volatility to come. So what does that mean for your clients with long-term investments like retirement and college savings plans? How you can you provide proper guidance to families who are tempted to make a drastic change based on fear? We asked three experts from the college savings industry about how their customers have been reacting when they saw their 529 plan balances drop, and the approach they recommend for this type of environment. Here's what they had to say: Reactions to volatility What types of reactions has the industry been seeing from families saving for college? According to Keith Bernhardt, Vice President of College Planning at Fidelity Investments, "Fidelity's call volumes have been up modestly during the past few weeks. When the markets are volatile and dropping, investors call seeking answers. They express concern, but not panic, and most are checking their account balances and seeking guidance, but they remain invested," he said. "During the last bout of market volatility back in August, we saw a slight uptick in customers reaching out to discuss their overall financial plans. Market disruption often reminds consumers to take action, and to put a plan in place to achieve their financial goals, including saving for college," he commented. Daniel Reyes, Principal, Advised Portfolio Solutions at Vanguard, and his team recognize that market volatility is on the minds of investors and are thinking of ways to provide guidance to college savers. What's more, volatility can be surprising for families saving for college, especially if they've chosen an age-based option within a 529 plan. "What's interesting about this particular spurt of volatility in the markets is that we've come off of a stretch over the last several years of relatively tame, relatively placid markets, and so the volatility that they're seeing right now relative to what their experience was over the last five years or so seems magnified," he says. David Malone, Director of Investment Management at Ascensus, the leading administrator of 529 college savings plans, points out that some investors may even be tempted to make changes in their portfolio based on fear. "Some market participants, compelled by fear, sell risky assets during times of trouble. Should 529 plan participants sell when market indices precipitously slide, or should they use periods of market volatility to re-evaluate circumstances before making any significant changes to their child's portfolio?" he asks. RELATED: When should you switch 529 plans? Recommendations That being said, what should you recommend to clients to ease their minds during market uncertainty? Malone suggests that investors should start by jotting down answers to a few key questions: How long has it been since you evaluated your college planning? How old is your child now? Have college plans changed? Have income, assets, or gifts to your children changed significantly? With how much turbulence can you, as a parent, stomach? "Relying on the realities of your situation instead of financial news cyclesï ¿ ½whether positive or negativeï ¿ ½can keep you grounded and focused when considering portfolio changes. It can also help you avoid making rash decisions that are based on your personal perceptions of the market's behavior," he recommends. "If your child has aged by more than a couple of years, a prudent and reasonable plan of action is to reassess your level of risk." Malone also notes that it's also important to reassess the entire family's college plan, especially if family dynamics have changed. "Consider updating all beneficiaries in all accounts to align your expected college needs with expected college needs. If this change is viable, adjustments to the portfolio should match the profile of the new beneficiary," he says. RELATED: A shortcut to comparing 529 investment option details "If your static allocation options have existed without review for a long period, then this market turbulence should give reason for you to review its appropriateness. During this review, you may consider evaluating where you are today, versus when you first invested. If your child is approaching or in college, then 529 plan assets should shift from risky assets to safer assets." Reyes advises investors to try and remain calm this year, and to try and accept that volatility is a normal part of investing. "We're always trying to tell our investors, as much as they possibly can, to tune out as much noise as they can, and try to separate the emotional part of investing," he says. According to recent analysis from Vanguard, since 1980 equity markets have seen on average a correction or bear market every two years. Global stock prices (January 1, 1980ï ¿ ½January 22, 2016) Declines Number Average return Average time from peak to trough Average time from trough to recovery Correction 12 ï ¿ ½13.7% 87 days 121 days Bear market 7 ï ¿ ½33.4% 373 days 798 days Source: Vanguard.com Reyes also reminds investors to stay focused on things they can really control, like the asset allocation in their college savings plan. "Make sure your allocations are appropriate for your time horizon and the amount of risk you're willing to take on," he says. That's easy to do if the investor is using an age-based option within a 529 plan, since an asset allocation strategy is built into the design. But for those managing their own investments who aren't sure where to start, Reyes recommends looking at the age-based options for a beneficiary of the same age as a reference point. Bernhardt also notes the benefits of investing in an age-based option during a volatile market. "Investors in target date strategies like Fidelity Freedom Funds (targeting retirement) and college 529 age-based portfolios tend to worry less about the fluctuations in the market and focus more on maintaining regular contributions. Because target date strategies are designed to get more conservative as the goal approaches, the investor can rely upon the fund manager and the design of the plan to reduce risk and equity exposure as the target date nears ï ¿ ½ in the case of 529 plans, as their child, or other beneficiary, gets closer to college age," he says. RELATED: Savingforcollege.com age-based asset allocation study Closing thoughts To reduce the amount of investment changes clients make within their college savings plans, Bernhardt suggests recommending age-based investment options. "By contributing regularly to a target date strategy, investors can remove some of the emotion that frequently paralyzes those who don't have a well thought out plan," he says. Malone also points out that change isn't always a bad thing. "In some cases, revamping 529 assets during a period of negative returns may very well be the right path. My suggestion is to let factsï ¿ ½not fearsï ¿ ½help you find the right solution. Keeping a balanced investment outlook is hard. Maintaining a prudent 529 plan does not need to be," he says. Reyes stresses the importance of discipline in a shaky market. He tells families to "resist the urge to make a dramatic change to their asst allocation," adding that this is one of the most important decisions investors can make. What's more, investors need to maintain their contributions amounts to take advantage of Dollar-Cost Averaging, which can help dampen the volatility over time. RELATED: How satisfied are consumers with their 529 plans?

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Culture Of An Organization - 2334 Words

The culture of an organization sets the tone for any work environment. Human resources and organizational culture works best together when an organization realizes if a potential employee is the best fit for the organization’s culture. However, the prospective employee must understand and realize if they are the best fit for the organization’s culture. Organizational culture relies on practices of the organization and how it affects the employee; it is the environment of the workplace. â€Å"Leaders first create culture when they create groups and organizations; once culture exists, they determine the criteria for leadership roles and from there, will determine who is capable of being leaders† (Schein, 2004, p. 311). Business professor, David†¦show more content†¦The organization was comprised of a very diverse group. In this setting, I was comfortable because I was surrounded by people who I could relate to. The owner introduced me to everyone and gave me a tour of the company on the first day. The owner told me to help myself to all of the snacks and sodas in the kitchen because he believed that small things in life go a long way with employees. He also told me to look around and notice the different type of people working for the company. He said, â€Å"Everyone is different, they all come from different backgrounds. Some are gay, some are straight, some are white, some are black, some are disabled and some are not; this is done purposely to create an environment where we all need each other and if you can’t approach Mike, because he’s gay or Shelly because she is Latina, then this is not the job for you†. â€Å"To manage diversity, employers must first understand and then manage their organizational cultures, defined as the values, beliefs, assumptions, expectations, attitudes, and norms shared by a majority of the organization’s members† (Pynes, 2013, p. 139). Within my first year, I learned about how diversity develops the organizational culture. I was able to recognize and understand the importance of different backgrounds working together to achieve goals. The organization molded me to be a better employee, to understand teamwork, and it allowed me to determine if I was a good fit. I had a few friends who started working for

Free Trade EU

Sample details Pages: 25 Words: 7631 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Free trade and competition for the EU Is it fair and in the interests of free trade and competition for the EU to impose quotas on the Chinese textile industry or is the EU guilty of protectionism? The trade relationship between the European Union and China is one that has existed for several years now. However, this relationship is one that has had its share of conflicts over the past 15 years or so, with regard to the volumes traded between the two regions. Since China entered the WTO in December 2001, trade barriers between China and the European were removed in order to ameliorate trade between the two. However, the textile and clothing product volumes that were exported from China to the EU began hurting the domestic markets in the EU. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Free Trade EU | Economics Dissertations" essay for you Create order It was due to this occurrence that the EU decided to re-apply quotas on China. In accordance with WTO principles, this is apparent violation of a developing countrys products. However, when China entered the WTO, the agreement asserted that a member may re-impose quotas on China for one year if that members markets were being hurt through Chinas export volumes of textile and clothing products. Introduction If one looks back around a hundred or more years ago, life was certainly simpler than it is today. This refers to the fact that there have been a plethora of developments that have impacted everyone. The developments that one may consider in particular are technological ones as well as intellectual ones. Some may even go as far as asserting that each of these drives the other. However, because of more awareness and technological development, life today is more complex than it was before. In every field one considers today, things are generally more complex. The business environment is a good example, as it is one that is influenced by an array of newer ideas as well as new technology. The technology mentioned here refers to the inventions or innovations that have made globalization possible. Business in todays world has to consider this macro economical phenomenon, as it is a major part of the business today. Globalization does not only affect international trade, but also has its impact on trade within each country. In addition totalling about the unavoidable globalization aspect of business today, it is important to focus on business ideas and relationships that forma major part of them. An example of trade relations is the trade relationship between Chin and the European Union. Rationale The trade relationship between the European Union and China is an interesting and important relationship to study because of the fact that it has a long history behind it. In addition to this, it is an important relationship to study because it helps to expose aspects of competition, rapid growth, as well as questions regarding free trade and protectionism. With increased emphasis in recent times on factors like free trade, its important to understand the relationship that has prevailed between China and the European Union. In addition to this, it is important to understand why there may have been changes in this long relationship over the years. More importantly, it of interest to scholars and all those associated with international business that the reasons for recent changes in the relationship. These changes include the Imposing quotas on the Chinese textile industry. Research Question In view of the relationship between the Chinese and the European Union being studied in this paper, there are several details that will be exposed. However, the main question that will be dealt with includes the following: Is it fair and in the interests of free trade and competition for thee to impose quotas on the Chinese textile industry or is the EU guilty of protectionism? In order to answer this question, there needs to be detailed study of relevant data on this subject. To begin with, there is need to explore all pertinent matter on this subject, which will be dealt with in the following section of this paper: Since technological advancements have promoted more effective communication around the world, international business has been greatly facilitated. Many economies have grown as a result of better communication. The European Union and particularly China have ameliorated their means of business because of effective communication. Certainly, these effective means have enhanced the speed with which trade has taken place. Richer countries, like those in the European Union, have had the capital in to invest in ventures across the globe, and have subsequently thrived of other markets . China on its part has been faced with the necessity of keeping up to date its communications methods and systems. This has been one of the grounds for concern in the past few years, as China is a major player in international trade. Businesses that were previously limited to UK markets have been extended to other places around the globe, as a result of globalization. Products that were freely available in one part of the world were easily spread into several others. The result of this was greater influx of revenue earned, and the chief operating office or store would benefit in its original location. This is true to say fork or US establishments that had chains in markets where labour is cheap. Certainly, with the advantage that chain store provided businesses, its no wonder why this example of international business has been highlight in the trade arena. In addition to chain stores being lucrative earning opportunities, there are several other opportunities that have risen . In terms of considering economic conditions, it can be asserted that globalization has presented businesses in countries like the UK and US with ample opportunity for outsourcing work. This is quite a common trend now as there are markets available to countries like the UK that have cheaper labour. Outsourcing to places like India is common today because UK companies are known to save a great deal of revenue. They need not hire workers in the UK because they are more costly in contrast to hiring them in India. In time to come, more and businesses will be conducted this way through hiring labour outside teak where it is cheaper. Therefore, it can be asserted that International Business is expected to undergo more changes in time to come. This is because of the fact that businesses are still in the process of realizing the scope of profits that can be earned. China is another country that has managed to take its products to other regions, and is still in the process of ameliorating its communication methods. However, it does not face significant obstacles in this regard. Technological Developments that Impact Business Today: There are several reasons why some may believe that international business is modified by technology. This is perhaps because the causes of this are more evident in their physical form. Developments such as credit cards, swipe machines and e-commerce technology, etc., are few of the things that are implemented as part of everyday business (Kennedy,2000, 34-9). With the use of credit cards, one can make an international business transaction. There is no need to travel to different parts of the world to get a particular product. Products that are affordable, like ones from China, can now be purchased while one sits at home [Taylor, 2002, 28]. Goods of various kinds are available through the Internet, and countries like China with a mass of products can serve one in almost any part of the world. This is possible because of products being available through the Internet and through payment with a credit card, etc. Here, one can see how important the establishment of the Internet has been in promoting international business too. The Internet is at the centre of technology as well as economic and political conditions too, and it is almost always considered when controls are being decided upon regarding safeguarding international business. This refers to the fact that businesses are known to exchange vital data across it during transactions or other forms of communication through it (Kennedy, 2000, 34-9). Also related to the Internet-based technology is telecommunication that has been transformed too. This type of technology has made things more convenient for business individuals in different parts of the world. Countries like China have been working to make sure their systems are up to date and capable of meeting requirements of trading partners like the EU. Today, instead of business people having to meet in person, they simply have online conferences and conversations. Even prior to signing contracts and going through with business deals, these forms of corresponding are proving to be successful. China is no stranger to these forms of communication (Kennedy, 2000, 34-9). The Trade Relationship between the European Union and China: Trade relations between different countries are important as they each form a part of a larger trade environment. Considering the China-European Union trade relationship, it can be asserted that this trade relationship indeed forma a significant part of the overall trade environment. This is because of the fact that China is third on the list of countries that the European Union trades with. What may be considered to be more significant is the fact that this trade relationship is one that has a long history to it, and has seen three different stages. Another interesting fact to note is that export and import volumes have always been on the rise between these two countries over the years in spite of obstacles coming in between these countries. The three stages through which the China and European Union trade relationship has gone through is as follows: 1. Western ostracism/Chinese self-sufficiency, 1949-1959; 2. Increasing bilateral trade development/low conflict levels, 1960-1988; and 3. EU-level trade policy/explosive trade growth/increasing trade conflict, 1989-present The first stage is the stage within which sanctions were imposed on China because of the Communist takeover. The sanctions were first imposed by the United States of America, and then were followed by the European countries. The trade volume during this period is almost not worth considering, and whatever trade did take place before these sanctions could be considered as a starting point in the trade relationship. Having sanctions imposed could in a manner of speaking mean that there was a relationship between Europe and China. Otherwise there would be no need for sanctions. The following stage in the trade relationship between China and the European Union describes a gradual increase in trade. The gradual increase in trade was later transformed into rapid trade developments[Table 1 reflects these trade development] and even agreements being signed between the two regions. Out of the different trade agreements signed during this period, it can be said that the most important of these are the agreement on commercial co-operation [1978], and the trade and economic agreement signed in [1985] . The third phase in which China and the European Union are in reflect the rapid trade progress that began in the second stage of their trade relations. Though this third stage has seen several developments, it has also seen several conflicts. However, bilateral relations still continue. The problem that seems to be most significant is that the European Union is further tightening its rules on the trade relationship with regard to specific products. The latest of these obstacles to trade between China and the European Union is the licensing quotas that have been imposed by the European Union on the import of textile from China. What do obstacles like quotas do? When two countries have traded for several years, they automatically gain an understanding between each other and trade volumes tend to expand gradually. This is similar to what exists between China and the European Union. They have traded with each other for several years, and this has led to agreements being signed between them. This has meant that trading between the two regions has become more practical, as trading obstacles were removed significantly. When trading obstacles are mentioned here it means that tariffs are removed. Precisely, this is why quotas should not be applied to any trade relationships as it introduces tariffs on trade. When tariffs are introduced, trade is less convenient, and this may even be a sign of deliberate attempts to reduce trade between two regions. In the case of China and the European Union, since the European Union has imposed licensing quotas on exports from China, it is apparent that the EU wants to mitigate textiles coming from China. This is because the EU had signed agreements that reduced tariffs and trade barriers when they traded with China (Ma, Wang, 2001, 22-5). Is There Any Specific Reason for the European Union Imposing Quotas on China? Over the years, when the EU has traded with China there has been change in the quality of exports coming from China. Previously, China had been known for its low quality products (Dong et al, 1998, 19-27).However, it can be asserted that there has been a change in the quality that China produces for the EU market. China has become increasingly aware of the fact that the EU market is quality conscious. This is because they understand that the market in several EU members is affluent. Particularly, Germany is a market that goes for high quality goods. China has therefore understood the need to develop an identity that may not have been before. Since European consumers now demonstrate shift in their attitudes, there is more scope for Chinese and other Asian countries to cater to these attitudes. A significant segment of consumers in the EU are ready to explore new brands (Lee, 2003, 20-2}.With their high expectations of new products and brands, these consumers present tremendous scope for the Chinese and other Asian countries to produce quality goods and services. Particularly in the case of the Chinese, it can be asserted that with their low cost quality goods, they can capture a great deal of the market (Fuchs,2003). In accordance with surveys, it is thought that China indeed has good chances of capturing a significant part of the European market as compared to other Asian countries. What goes in Chinas favour is the fact that they have had had a long relationship with the European Union, and consumers have taken to their products. In addition to this, Chinas prices have been more affordable than other Asian countries, considering the quantity they produce as well. It is because of this that China has managed to maintain an image as a supplier to major markets [Fuchs, 2003]. This has also helped its reputation as it has managed to align itself alongside other members of the WTO. Therefore, on its part, China has done nothing to violate the rules of the WTO (Williams et al, 2002, 577-91. Having mentioned Chinas abidance by the WTO rules, it is worth noting that China had Seventy Thousand Textile and clothing enterprises in2002, of which only twenty present are state-owned. With more than 80percent of the textile industry in the hands of the private sector, China is doing well to abide by WTO policies. Though China has been doing well, in 2002, it was predicted that China was headed for obstacles. One of the first obstacles was thought to be the increasingly strong hi-tech tendency led by information progress. Considering that there has been an immense advancement in data interchange, e-commerce and virtual trading sites, if China did not focus on these aspects it would not be able to stay in the market(Taylor et al., 2001). In addition to this, it was thought that China would have to face an expediting tendency of economic globalization and market integration marked with the World Trade Organization . Obviously China has been making progress in these directions, and this is the reason why they are still in the market and in demand as suppliers of quality products at reduced costs. Though there are still many consumers who have the impression that China continues with its low quality and bulk produced goods, there are also many consumers who are ready to explore the newer Chinese brands that aim at producing better quality to consumers in thee that have higher expectations [Fuchs, 2003]. As far as working according to the WTO expectations is concerned, China has managed to so far combat its trade functions that are not according to WTO expectations. As a result of this, China has gained through its membership, and it is ready to take further steps in order to be completely in sync with WTO standards (Yang, 2001, 437-42). One benefit that China has had since it joined the WTO is that its textile and clothing exports to the US have increase momentously. This is reflected in the fact that US textile and clothing imports from China had risen by 124 % in 2002. This was one year after China joined the WTO in 2001.Chinese exporters reduced their prices in order to gain a greater share in the market. They were able to do so, among other reasons, because quota rents were reduced and Chinese enterprises increased their productivity by investing heavily in new machinery and technology (Knapped, 2003). As a result of this, China realized that it had even greater scope for exports, and continued to work towards enhancing its quality and output in the textile and clothing industry. In 2000, Chinas output in the textile and clothing industry has stood at 97.7% while the US has stood at 76.3 %. In contrast to these high percentages, the EUs output has dropped from 53% (1980) to 29% (1995).Quite obviously, the EU textile market has been on the decline, and has also been known to undergo a continuous process of restructuring in this industry . Another interesting fact to note is that while import quotas were reduced in the past 15-20 years, Chinas exports to the EU increased bay startling 164%. In contrast to Chinas huge volume of export to thee in the category of textile and clothing, other countries only increased their exports to the EU by 10 % . Since the USA and the EU both had anticipated such a situation in which China would overwhelm domestic markets in these two countries [in the category of textile and clothing products], when China entered the Wrother agreement included allowing any member to re-impose quotas in order to safeguard themselves. The agreement allowed any member to impose quotas for a period of one year between 2005 and 2008, but this was only in the case of domestic markets being affected in the USA and thee . What Does the WTO Say About Discrimination? It is known that agreements formed between member countries are meant to benefit all members as a whole. It is rare that agreements intrude discriminate against some countries. In order to prevent discrimination in trade taking place, the WTO has set standards that are to be followed closely. Being a successor to the GATT, it follows the principles set by the GATT as well. Indeed, many of the newer policies established are a result of GATT policies that were first established in the 1940s (Brews, et al, 1996, 27-51). The WTO [World Trade Organization] is the successor of the GATT[General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade]. The WTO is at present, an organization, which has further developed various policies dealing with multilateral trade, and also has maintained and followed policies that were established under GATT. Policies that are followed under GATTinclude articles 1 and 3 under GATT 1994. The WTO upholds the GATT 1994policy, which consists of the principle of non-discrimination. These are particularly relevant to the trade relationship between China and the European Union (Brews, et al, 1996, 27-51). Basically, the principle of in the GATT 1944 has two main points that promote fair multilateral trade. These include the Most-Favoured Nation[MFN], which is the clause contained in GATT Article I, and the second one is the National Treatment rule that comes under Article III(Brews, et al, 1996, 27-51). In accordance with Article I, Members of the WTO are not supposed to discriminate between the products of other Members and the products that are from any other country. This is especially the case with developing countries that try to promote themselves as possible. No country is supposed to have any special trading benefits with another country or discriminate against it. As a result of this, all members are believed to have equal rights, and they all have the same benefits that come of any rules for lower trade barriers (Hoekman Kostecki, 2001, 37-50). The MFN principle mentioned earlier, guarantees countries, whether they are developing countries or ones with little economic leverage, so that they may gain freely from the most appropriate trading conditions no matter when and where they are decided upon. The important component of non-discrimination, National Treatment, is yet another supporting factor. In accordance with Article III, once products have been launched in any market, they should be treated the same as locally produced ones (Brews, et al, 1996, 27-51). It must be asserted that the principle of non-discrimination is the central rule around which the rules of the multilateral trading system are established. Another consideration that might be brought into play is the fact that the WTO practically overrules the other policies and laws when it comes to sustaining trade between countries. Its policies are such that it has the power to overrule laws such as environmental-based as well. In addition to this, it is an agreement that is believed to be powerful enough to overrule government powers through imposing sanctions. Theta agreement has the power to overrule policies that prevent trade from taking place multilaterally (Martin Ianchovichina, 2001,1205). Free trade refers to an agreement whereby all member countries are allowed to conduct uninhibited trade without any barriers being imposed on them once their products are introduced in the market (Brews, etal, 1996, 27-51). The WTO mission statement asserts that the organization aims at promoting smooth and free trade through encouraging lower trade barriers. In addition to this, it also provides a platform that caters to the negotiation of trade; it helps in resolving trade disputes as well between member nations. Also, the aim of the WTO is to aid producers of goods and services, importers and exporters to carry out their businesses (Hoekman Kostecki, 2001, 37-50). The WTO Trading system follows the following principles in order to fulfil their mission. It asserts that: 1. A trading system is encouraged to be more competitive. 2. A trading system needs to be open and accommodating so that less developed countries are encompassed. This will provide them with more time, greater flexibility, and privileges too. 3. A trading system needs to be free of discrimination in order to prevent one country from discriminating against another country or against foreign products or services. 4. A trading system should not have barriers that inhibit it from trading freely. 5. A trading system needs to be predictable in a manner that foreign companies and governments can have the confidence that trade obstacles will not take place and that the markets they invest in will not suffering anyway (Hoekman Kostecki, 2001, 37-50). From the above, the WTO promotes a suitable environment within which businesses can be introduced, can operate, and may not be driven out of easily. It is an organization lends tremendous support to trading countries like China that has immense scope for growth. Methodology: In order to conduct a study and answer the above research question, there is need to understand what can be deciphered from the matter reviewed. The matter reviewed will essentially consist of authentic material that is concerned with the relationship between China and the European Union, and also what the WTO principles state regarding the trade relations between these two sides. The literature review will reanalysed thoroughly so as to expose the underlying answer to the research question. For this study, there will be a qualitative as well as a quantitative method employed. This means that in addition to the literature review that would serve as a good amount of data, a survey will also be conducted and analysed. The survey will consist of 10 questions and 50participants randomly selected. This data obtained through the survey will be compared with the reviewed literature in order to determine whether opinions coincide or not. Sources for the literature review are ones that are relative to the issue and are authentic, as they are taken from books, journals as well as official websites, newspapers and magazines. Sources used in the literature review are relevant to the area of study as well as the other relevant views that help in exploring this area of study as deeply as possible. In addition to the use of the sources mentioned above, the important factors belonging to field studied here are obtained from other studies and presentations, which means that this Isa qualitative study. This helps to bring together a wider range of opinions and facts that can be analysed from different angles. Careful analysis will be carried out in order to answer the research question. After analysing the facts presented and making use of opinions as well, the study will be concluded. Analysis Trade relations between any two regions are not only governed by principles set between them, but are also directly influenced by factors outside the relationship. This could refer to globalization-influenced communications or even political rules through organizations. The relationship between China and the European is an example of a trade relationship that is subject to external influences as well as the agreements set between the two regions. The reason why it is said that the trade relationship between China and the EU is influenced by external factors is because of the comparisons that are often made with the EUs trade relationships with other countries. Also, the fact that China is now a member of the WTO means that both trading regions are now under the WTO obligations (Martin Ianchovichina, 2001, 1205). However, the trade relationship between the two regions is not mitigated by the WTO. Instead, the WTO encourages a better trade relationship between the two regions. It can therefore be said that the trade relationship between the EU and China is one that is mainly influenced by the agreements that the two countries have. The history of the relationship between these trading regions plays an important role in understanding the relationship, as the relationship was strengthened over a several years and trade volumes grew proportionately as well (Martin Ianchovichina, 2001, 1205). The European Unions Viable Markets: Since the very beginning of the trade relationship between China and the European Union, both sides saw immense scope for exports and imports. This is because both of them realized that they had markets that needed services and products from each other. Particularly, the European members realized that they had a vast consumer market the Chinese could cater to. Chinese products and services suited Consumers because of the fact that China was able to supply in bulk and that to at a low cost. Till today this is one of the major reasons why the EU is keen on trading with them. This is in spite of the fact that there are conflicts between the two sides. The Chinese have always realized the potential in EU market through the years. They are aware of the fact that they can produce products and services that are affordable for most consumers in the European Union. They have understood the consumers in the past as well as now, and are aware of the shifts that are taking place in consumer culture. The Chinese are also well aware of how much they need to ameliorate their quality with regard to particular products and services. They know that there is an affluent market to cater to in addition to the average consumer who would settle for more affordable products produced in China. Since the general impression of China has been that they produce low quality products in bulk, the Chinese are changing that image now. They know that a significant portion of the EU market has affluent individuals who want quality products. China knows that it is in apposition to produce this quality for a small sacrifice. They will lower their margin of profit in order to achieve this, and would still be able to make profits that are more than what other countries can do. In addition to being aware of their capability and how much they can do to withhold significant portions of the EU market, the Chinese also know that there is a portion of the EU market that is willing to explore newer brands. This is something that would help them create a better image for themselves. As mentioned above, many believe that China produces low quality goods. However, with a significant portion of the EU market being curious enough to explore new products, gives China a good opportunity to ameliorate its image as a country that produces quality goods (Kong, 2001, 1181-214). This is the case with the textile and clothing products that China produces. It has aimed at producing better quality in recent times, but may also have low quality as well because the change is still in progress. Demand for Chinese Textile and Clothing Since it Entered the WTO: Since it entered the WTO in 2001, Chinas textile and clothing products have been in demand in both, the USA and the EU. The fact that they have improved their quality and because they are cheaper than the same products supplied by other countries, puts them ahead (Martin Ianchovichina, 2001, 421446). In addition to this, there arent many countries that can produce goods in the quantity that China can [Table3 reflects the increased number of employed individuals in China].However, China is flooding the market with its textile and clothing products, and this is a significant degree of concern for developed countries like the USA and the EU. The EU in particular has objected tithe manner in which their market has been flooded and the manner in which their domestic producers are being hurt. This is the reason why they are now imposing quotas on Chinese textile and clothing exports. Quotas that previously applied to Chinese exports to the EU were removed in order to ameliorate trade between the two regions. This waste make trade more prosperous, and it certainly did help the trade volumes increase significantly. However, after 2001, when China entered the WTO, Chinese textile and clothing products were welcomed to such an extent that they flooded the EU market. This is the reason why the EU has decided to re-impose quotas on Chinese textile and clothing exports to the EU (Martin Ianchovichina, 2001, 421446). Many object to the EU re-imposing quotas that bring back the effects of tariffs and trade obstacles between China and the EU. They believe that it is unfair and that the EU is abandoning its commitment to trade under the WTO rules. Here, it is important to include what the WTO rules assert regarding such a situation where the EU has attempted to mitigate textile and clothing exports from China to the EU (Martin Ianchovichina, 2001, 421446). Is the European Union Violating WTO Principles? In view of the WTO principles, it is clear that member countries are not supposed to discriminate against any products or member countries. In addition to this, it is said that no member me provide advantages intrude over other member countries. This is something that the EU has done with China in the past. No country is supposed to have any special trading benefits with another country or discriminate against it. As a result of this, all members are believed to have equal rights, and they all have the same benefits that come of any rules for lower trade barriers (Rose, 2004, 98-114). Though providing China with trade advantages was done with the intention of promoting better trade between the two regions, it violates the rights of other WTO members. Since no member of the WTO is allowed to have any special trading benefits with another country or discriminate against it, they all have equal rights, and they all have the same benefits that come of any rules for lower trade barriers(Hoekman Kostecki, 2001, 37-50). If advantages were to be provided to trading partners, they should have been provided to all trading partners that were trading the same commodity to the EU. However, in view of the long relationship that China enjoyed with the EU, and the fact that the EU saw China as amiable trade partner, the EU hoped to secure their trade relationship. Quite obviously, removing quotas from trade with China was carried outing order to maintain a long-term trade relationship. However, there have been conflicts that have taken place from time to time between China and the EU due to the volume that China manages to export to thee. The WTO obviously would not have any objection to the EU removing quotas, but to re-impose them would be considered violation of (Rose, 2004, 98-114). Clearly, it can be observed from the above points under the WTO that its in thorough favour of trade being promoted at all levels. It also aims at reducing the level of discrimination among the trading countries in order to promote more competition as well as provide opportunities to all. Can China Be Protected by the WTO if the European Union re-applies quotas? The WTO/GATT principles of non-discrimination are the chief principles of free trade, and have to a great extent aided China in its trade with the EU. It is through these principles that countries like China are able to trade freely and not be inhibited by any newer laws once they have their products in the market. The idea of the WTO asserting that countries with their products in the market being immune to newer policies by member countries is to protect them from being pushed out of the market (Hoekman Kostecki, 2001, 37-50). The quotas binger-imposed by the EU is an example of Chinese textile and clothing products being mitigated. The WTO protects such countries that ordinarily would be driven out of competition (Brews, et al, 1996,27-51). With its chief mission to maintain and promote competition in the market, the WTO seeks to make trading countries immune to newly introduced laws that seek to discriminate against them. This is interesting to discuss because of the fact that it is this law that thee apparently is violating. It is thought that by them re-imposing quotas on Chinese exports they are discriminating against them. Particularly, it may be pointed out that the EU is re-imposing quotas because its domestic market and producers are being hurt by the exports coming from China in large volumes. Here, it may be asserted that GATT1994, article 1 and 3 are of tremendous importance, as it is the fundamental principle of non-discrimination that the WTO enforces (Rose,2004, 98-114). To begin with, Article 1 asserts that products of member countries should not be treated differently. Alongside this, Article 3 asserts that once products from WTO members have already been introduced into the market, they cannot be removed or inhibited by laws introduced later, such as the re-imposed quotas. Is China an Exception? In asserting that the EU may have violated WTO principles of on-discrimination, it may also be remembered that there was a particular clause inserted in the WTO agreement when China entered in2001. The USA and the EU both were well aware of the rapid pace with which China could export textile and clothing products. Therefore, they needed to devise some mechanism that would prevent China from overwhelming their markets in this category. Therefore, the clause that they inserted asserted that any member has the right to impose quotas for a period of one year between 2005 and 2008. Since this was a point that the Chinese agreed on, it is difficult to say whether it is right for the EU to impose quotas. In view of the research question that asks whether it is fair and in the interests of free trade and competition for the EU to impose quotas on the Chinese textile industry, it might be asserted that the EU guilty of protectionism. To some, the EU may be guilty of protectionism. However, if it is being protective over its markets, it must be realized that it is being protective after making clear at the time when China entered the WTO agreement that it could impose quotas for a year. The Chinese after agreeing to this point should not have any objection (Rose, 2004, 98-114). Given that the Chinese entered the WTO according to their own freewill, which is supposed to protect countries like them, they find that the same agreement allows the EU to impose quotas for a year. Undoubtedly, the Chinese were aware of this part of the agreement. However, on the part of the WTOs actual mission statement, it may be asserted that it is their duty [WTOs duty] to make sure that quotas like these are nullified. This is because these quotas go against thetas major principles that are based on GATT articles 1 and 3 (Rose,2004, 98-114). Still, this argument against the quotas being re-imposed may be neutralized by the argument that the WTO was aware of Chinese exports being an exception. This is based on the fact that some Chinese exports such as the textile and clothing products are fully capable of continuing where it leaves of. This means that after a year of the quotas being applied, the Chinese textile and clothing products could continue its performance. A question that emerges from this point includes asking what would be the next move for the EU if these Chinese exports behave in the same manner and hurt the domestic producers in the EU. Inclusion of Survey Results: In view of the argument that re-imposing quotas goes against the WTOs major principles [based on GATT articles 1 and 3], the survey conducted has interesting answers worth considering [Questionnaire and Accumulated Answers in the Appendix]. According to the survey conducted, it is apparent that some individuals do not have complete faith in the WTO rules. 11 out of the 50individuals do not really believe that the WTO benefits all members equally. Whether or not the clause in the WTO applies to China in adjust manner, some individuals do not believe that it is fair because it does go against the mission statement of the WTO (Hoekman Kostecki, 2001, 37-50). Reinforcing the view of the 11 individuals who do not believe that WTO benefits all members equally, is the number in the survey that do not agree with quotas being re-applied. These individuals are 15 in number, and out of 50 individuals used, it may be asserted that this is significant number. It must be noted that this number was a general opinion of whether or not quotas should be re-applied whenever deemed necessary. Again here, support this figure, is the number of individuals that disagree with quotas being re-applied to Chinese textile and clothing products exported to the EU. They are 20 in number, and this again, is a significant number. In view of the above view that is generally against the concept of quotas being re-applied, the following question in the survey received somewhat unexpected figure. To the question: Do you think the Should keep on allowing Chinese textile and clothing products to flood their markets?, the answers were: YES: 15 NO: 32 Not Sure: 03. It must be pointed out here that though there is a considerably high number of individuals in the survey that are not in favour of quotas being re-applied, there are several individuals that also feel that Chinese textile and clothing products should not flood domestic markets in the EU. These figures could indicate that there might be alternative ways to sort out the problem that faces the EU domestic market. Perhaps, the EU and China could negotiate or deal with the problem in another manner instead of the EU re-imposing quotas. In addition to the above possible method of solving the problem, the individuals surveyed felt strongly about the capability of the WTO in helping developing countries like China. In answering the question: Do you think that the WTO rules are effective enough to help China and prevent quotas from being re-applied to it?, 47 answered YES. However, the following question: According to the agreement, when China entered the WTO, it allowed re-application of quotas for one-year period if its exports hurt the domestic markets in the EU. Do you think that the WTO should still intervene? 37 felt that the WTO should not intervene. This is perhaps because of the agreement that it has already made with China. However, the EU could still try and negotiate alternative methods of solving the manner in which its markets are being choked by Chinese textile and clothing products coming in to the EU markets. Conclusion In view of all that has been discussed above after reviewing pertinent literature and conducting a survey, there are conflicting opinions that may be considered. In order to put down these opinions as well as facts in the simplest manner possible, the major aspects need to be asserted. In view of the China entering the WTO, it must be first of all remembered that the entered this agreement with knowing about the clause in it that allowed members such as the USA and the EU tore-impose quotas when deemed necessary. Particular, these quotas could be re-applied in the event of domestic markets being hurt by Chinese textile and clothing products being exported to the EU and the USA. Here it is important to assert that China has in fact been expanding its trade volumes rapidly in many markets it trades in. On these grounds, China cannot oppose any quotas re-applied to it. At the same time, considering the mission statement of the WTO and the GATT principles according to which it prevents discrimination against countries like China, many believe that the WTO should intervene in this situation. However, it is argued that since this clause was part of the WTO agreement, how could it be reverted? The alternative to the situation would be for the EU to work out some agreement or negotiate with China. Finally, in answering whether or not it is fair and in the interests of free trade and competition for the EU to impose quotas on the Chinese textile industry, it can be asserted that the EU is working within legal boundaries set by the WTO when China entered it in December 2001.It may also be asserted that the European Union is guilty of protectionism because it fears that its domestic markets and producers are being hurt by the manner in which Chinese textile and clothing products are flooding them. However, this type of situation was predicted, and with the consent and full knowledge of the WTO and China, the EU is able to safeguard its own producers and domestic markets. References Brews, D.M., Mathieson, I., Sutherland, I., Cayless R.A., Dahm, R.H.,Schwartz W.F. Sykes, A.O. 1996. Toward a Positive Theory of theMost Favored Nation Obligation and Its Exceptions in the WTO/GATTSystem. International Review of Law and Economics, Volume 16, Number 1,March 1996, pp. 27-51 Conflicts between the two parties have European Business Review. 1999. Volume 99 Number 3 pp. 154161 Dong, Y., Xu, H. and Liu, F. 1998, Antidumping and the WTO:implications for China, Journal of World Trade, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp.19-27. European Business Review. Volume 99 Number 3 1999 pp. 154161 Fuchs, Hans Joachim. 2003. Fareast Goes West New Opportunities for Asian Brands in Europe. Volume 15 Number 3 2003 Hoekman, B. Kostecki, M. 2001. The Political Economy of the WorldTrading System: WTO and Beyond, Oxford University Press, pp 37-50. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 8 No. 2, 2004, pp. 136-140. Keenan, M., Saritas, O. Kroener, I. 2004. A dying industry ornot? The future of the European textiles and clothing industry. Volume6 Number 5. 315 Kennedy, G. 2000, E-commerce: the taming of the Internet in China, The China Business Review, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 34-9. Knapped, M. (2003), Textiles and clothing: what happens after 2005?,International Trade Forum, No. 2, available at:www.tradeforum.org/news/printpage.php/aid/550/Textiles_and_Cloth/php/aid/550. Kong, Q. 2001, Enforcement of WTO agreements in China: illusion orreality?, Journal of World Trade, Vol. 35 No. 6, pp. 1181-214. Lee, E. 2003, Can Hong Kong be Asias fashion hub?, ATA Journal, February/March, pp. 20-2. Ma, J. and Wang, J. 2001, Winners and losers of Chinas WTO entry, The China Business Review, March-April, pp. 22-5. Martin, W. Ianchovichina, E. 2001. Implications of ChinasAccession to the World Trade Organisation for China and the WTO. TheWorld Economy, September 2001, Volume 24, Issue 9, Page 1205. Martin, W. Ianchovichina, E. 2001.Trade Liberalization in ChinasAccession to WTO, Journal o f Economic Integration. Volume 16, Number 4/ December 2001, 421 446. Rose, A. K. 2004. Do We Really Know That the WTO Increases Trade? TheAmerican Economic Review, American Economic Association, Volume 94,Number 1, 1 March 2004, pp. 98-114 Taylor, G. 2002. Initiatives in e-commerce in China, ITB International Textile Bulletin, No. 2, p. 28. Taylor, G., Hui, C.L., Ng, S.F., Moon, K.L. and Lau, T.W. 2001, Theapplication of electronic commerce in the fashion and clothingindustries, Proceedings of the 30th Textile Research Symposium, MtFuji, Japan, July/August, pp. 262-9. Williams, M., Kong, Y.H. and Shen, Y. 2002, Bonanza or mirage?Textiles and Chinas accession to the WTO, Journal of World Trade,Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 577-91. Yang, X. 2001, Chinas entry to the WTO, China Economic Review, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 437-42. Yang, Y. 1996, Chinas WTO membership: whats at stake?, World Economy, Vol. 19, pp. 661-82.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Solar Roadways - 2387 Words

Hilario Ramos Ms.Kemp Eng 009 Are Solar Roadways the future? In the beginning Scott and Julie Brusaw became open on the subject for creating solar-powered LED roadways, they have encountered an endless amount of doubt and even outright aggression. The reaction was obviously expected given how new this sort of technology is. Not only is it new, but it would quite difficult to execute the dream of electrifying roads and highways with reinforced solar panels. Some questioned question if whether or not solar roadways are even necessary. However, the most important company that governs American roads -- was willing to at least give the idea a shot. Although the idea of solar roadways does sound amazing has many obvious potholes, but its†¦show more content†¦Words will be able to be illuminated into roads, warning of wildlife ahead, a detour a couple of miles in the distance, a recent accident blocking the road, or construction will now be much easier to avoid than waiting to encountering it as it comes. The LEDs can also be programmed to move along with cars at the speed limit, warning drivers instantly when they are driving too fast. The LEDs will also be used to paint words right into the road, warning drivers of an animal on the road, a detour ahead, an accident, or construction work. Central control stations will be able to instantly customize the lines and words in real time, alleviating traffic congestion and making the roads more efficient as well as safer. Cities and towns will be able to customize the lines for roads and parking spaces to meet their own unique needs. For example, here in Sandpoint, Idaho, we have Lost in the 50s Weekend each May. Currently, the city puts out orange cones to remark the parking places and block off streets for the parade, car show, and street dance. With Solar Roadways, they would push the Lost in the 50s button which would repaint the road lines instantly. After the celebration, they would equally quickly return to the default setting. Everyone who has driven the dark roads during night time, but with Solar Roadways there will be LED lights which will illuminateShow MoreRelatedSolar Roadways Essay1633 Words   |  7 Pagesto melt snow, generate electricity, and overall benefit the economy. Scott Brusaw, an electrical engineer, and his wife, Julie Brusaw, a counselor, are the Co-Inventors of Solar Roadways. Solar roadways are a series of structurally engineered solar panels that can be driven on, which would replace asphalt roads. Solar Roadways would collect energy and then distribute it to our homes and businesses in order to replace the need for fossil fuels and better the economy. This past February, four studentsRead MoreSolar Energy Is The Conversion Of Power From The Sun1361 Words   |  6 Pages Research Paper – Solar Energy Blakely J. Phillips BGEN 440, Montana State University - Billingsâ€Æ' Introduction Solar energy is the conversion of power from the sun to usable electricity (Alternative Energy, 2014). The most common source of solar energy utilizes photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into electricity (Alternative Energy, 2014). Photovoltaics use a semi-conductor to absorb the radiation from the sun, creating and emitting electrons, which are then harnessed and used as electricityRead MoreThe Solar And Integrated Photovoltaic Panels That Generate Electricity1020 Words   |  5 Pagesto actually be the streets! I’m talking about roadways with integrated photovoltaic panels that generate electricity! The basic concept of this technology is actually quite interesting. With over 2.5 million miles of paved roadway throughout the United States alone, even covering a fraction of those roadway surfaces with solar panels could generate enormous amounts of clean energy. There are currently two different approaches to the solar panel roadway concept, both of which are currently in the ResearchRead MoreA Research Group On The World1355 Words   |  6 Pagescrystalline silicon Solar cells coated on the top of it, so not only is it a bike path, it is also a solar path. This path the Netherlands is 230 feet long, costing $3.7 million. The solar power produced by this path meets the needs of only three houses. Yes, this may not seem like a lot but once again they have opened a huge door to the future. Imagine if all the roadways in the world had these crystalline silicon solar cells coated on top of them. Now this would produce a lot more solar energy, withoutRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Solar Roads Essay758 Words   |  4 PagesName: Jaylen Castro Date: 11/15/16 Topic 1A Artifact 2A Purpose: The name of my innovation that is being represented by my computational artifact is Solar Roads. The main purpose for Solar Roads is that they produce clean renewable energy for the surrounding environment. Solar Roads are also intelligent and can be rearranged buy coding the roads to represent pictures, signs, and cautions on the road. It can also help with road kill, snow or ice on the road, can store water and transfer it,Read MoreSolar Technology Uses The Sun s Energy1304 Words   |  6 PagesBob Johnstone, author of Switching to Solar, proclaims that every day the sun produces 970 trillion kilowatt-hours of energy (Johnson 11). Volker Quaschning – writer of Understanding Renewable Energy Systems – puts this fact in perspective by explaining how the world only uses one ten-thousandth of that quantity to power itself (Quaschning 22). This means that if humanity can find a way to harness even a fraction of the sun’s energy, the world will no longer n eed fossil fuels or other harmful energyRead MoreSolar Energy As A Alternative Energy Source2941 Words   |  12 PagesIntroduction The concept of solar energy is not a new one. We have seen it in practice from solar powered calculators, garden lights, watches, and a wide variety of other novelty products. However, the idea of solar energy as a sustainable, renewable form of electricity, is on another level completely. Solar energy is one of the most popular and fastest growing sources of alternative energy not only in the country, but in the world. Solar energy is the conversion of power from the sun to usableRead More Solar Energy Essay1384 Words   |  6 PagesSolar energy is better for the environment than energy derived from other sources. Even though it is the most difficult source of energy to channel, solar energy can provide great amounts of resources for the environment as well as market venture, if proven effective. The fact that solar energy comes from the sun, makes it the most desired source of energy. Without solar energy, oxygen and food would be rare to find; mostly from the fact that the sun brings forth all life on planet Earth. The ideaRead MoreHow Solar Power Has Many Different Applications For All Nations Around The World Essay1401 Words   |  6 Pages Solar power has many different applications for all nations around the world. As you ve read before it can be used to create electricity for homes, businesses, etc. or in order to power different machines, facilities, and household items that we use every day. For our project we will be looking at using it in order to help the nation of Somalia, more specifically we will be looking at Mogadishu which is the capital of Somalia. The area is on the Horn of Africa and to the west of the Indian OceanRead MoreThe Impact of Solar Energy Technologies in China Essay2497 Words   |  10 Pagesgeothermal, hydropower or solar energy. (Zhen 2008). Qian and Ling state that Northwest China is an ideal place to develop solar energy, the energy used by absorption of sun radiation, because there is a very wide access to sun heating, which is about 2000 hours a year. (Qian and Ling 1998). However, since there is a very little support from science, government and market, that fact causes the main diffi culties to popularize this energy. Despite high prices some of the solar energy technologies have

Family Of Origin Family - 814 Words

family of origin. Include pertinent information regarding the kinship caregiver’s childhood experiences. Include how the kinship caregiver was disciplined as a child and if they believe it to be excessive or abusive. When did the kinship caregiver leave home and under what conditions? What is the current relationship with parents and siblings, including frequency of contact and quality of relationship? Previous relationships: Include discussions of previous significant relationships as well as all prior marriages. Include all prior marriages, dispositions of marriages, divorce information, significant others they have lived with or have children by. Date, city, county, and state of all marriages and divorces. If they cannot provide, document that the caregiver was asked for the information. Describe the history of each past relationship including how they met, the courtship, and the decision to marry, if applicable. If the relationship(s) ended, then include a discussion of how it ended, why it ended, how any differences were resolved, any current contact with that individual, and the type and frequency of contact with that individual. Include any history of family violence in each relationship. Include if the caregiver was the primary kinship caregiver of the children, custody arrangements if divorced or estranged, child support payment information, if the person is in arrea rs on child support, and current contact and relationship with their children.Show MoreRelatedFamily Of Origin And Our Family Culture Essay1681 Words   |  7 PagesThe term Family of Origin refers to the family that you grew up in - your parents and siblings, your original family. It may also include grandparents, other relatives, or other individuals who lived with you during part of your childhood. From our family we learn how to communicate, deal with our emotions, and get our needs met. We also learn many of our values and beliefs from our families. We often develop our sense of self in the context of our family of origin. Our family of origin or our familyRead MoreThe Origin Of Family Systems1527 Words   |  7 PagesTHE ORIGIN OF FAMILY SYSTEMS It is widely believed that family systems in one form or the other, though varying hugely from the forms of family we are accustomed to today, have existed since time immemorial, maybe right from the time Homo sapiens first appeared on the face of the earth. The formation of families regulated the sexual behaviour of its members and ensured that sexual jealousy of the primates remained under tabs. It also led to a form of division of labour where the roles of the membersRead MoreThe Origins Of The Percussion Family1310 Words   |  6 Pages Examining the Origins of the Percussion Family To get a clear view of the origins of the percussion family, one should first have to the ability to classify the plethora of instruments. For the sake of this document we will use the broad classification of Janissary instruments and non-Janissary instruments. The Janissary instruments find their roots in the Turkish military bands of the Ottoman Empire. The term Janissary refers to the Turkish Yeà ±i-à §eri, or â€Å"new troops†. Sultan Orkhan I, of theRead MoreFamily Origin Paper1821 Words   |  8 PagesSorenson Valerie Wall Individual, Family, and Society October 29, 2012 Family of Origin Paper To start my family origin paper we have to go way back to 1976 when my parents met in Alamo, North Dakota; a town of about 200 people in the northwestern part of the state. They met while going through school playing sports, mainly basketball. Both were pretty good at the sport and won some awards and had chances to play more but decided to get married and start a family instead. Both grew up around theRead MoreDescription Of My Family Of Origin1643 Words   |  7 PagesPersonal Case Study Description of my family of origin I am from the Caribbean Island of Jamaica. I grew up in a very small farm town where everyone knew each other. I grew up very poor. I am number four of seven children for my mother. Only the first four children are for my father. The others are half sibling, even though I do not consider them as such. When I was born, my father was in the United States on Farm Work. I did not meet my father until I was approximately 9 years old. My father decidedRead MorePersonal Statement On Origin Family1253 Words   |  6 PagesThe purpose of my paper is to identify my of origin family. I will be doing a cultural autobiography. I will be addressing my families overall background for previous generations into the present generation. Furthermore, I also will be discussing the factors that contributed to the overall attitudes towards my family origin. In my paper, I will target three areas this week, which is gender, socio economic, and spirituality. When I was younger, my mother always preachedRead MoreThe Origins Of The Family Name Selover Essay1605 Words   |  7 PagesThe rarity of the family name Selover derives in part from its French origins of Seloivre in Calais. When a descendent relocated to Holland the Dutch, simplified, for their ease, the name to Selover. The family of cart wrights eventually had a son, Isaac Selover (b 1642) and he voyaged to New York planting the name in the New World. It was Asher Selover (b 1796) who brought the name to Ohio from New York in 1841 initially buying land in Strongsville a town some 24 km southwest of Cleveland. His wifeRead MoreFamily Story And Origin Of A New Environment1356 Words   |  6 PagesEvery family story and origin is unique to the members of the immediate group, while including the traditions passed from generation to generation. From the scent of their house and clothes, special holidays, vacation spots, memories, what they eat and how it is served; all of these elements of life are distinct to a family. These elements are incorporated into what is viewed as normal life in a way that we don’t see how our lives differ from those around us, until we are faced with a situation whereRead MoreAnalysis Of Dana s Family Of Origin1092 Words   |  5 Pagesinclude complicated relationships with family, financial stress, concerns for her children, living in a poor neighborhood, and juggling a busy work load between family, work and school. Dana had few social supports and limited family in the area to depend on. She and her husband frequen tly argue over money, household, and child rearing issues. Dana often complains of anxious feeling, depressed mood, and feeling stuck in her current situation. Dana’s family of origin consisted of her mother, father, brotherRead MoreBrian And Steves Attachment Style With Their Family Of Origin1488 Words   |  6 PagesAnother concept through which the presenting issue can be examined, is by focusing on Brian and Steve’s attachment style with their family of origin. Bowlby (1979) deliberated that in-order for babies to survive, there is a biological drive to seek proximity to the primary caregiver. An individual’s ability to respond, process elements of their dynamic environment and store these internal representation in their neurobiology to aid survival, forms the premise of attachment theory (Perry Pollard

Report on Business Communication Plan

Question: Discuss about the Report on Business Communication Plan. Answer: Introduction Communication is an integral part in an individuals life. It is essential to develop a proper communication process. It helps in achieving the overall proficiency in variety of work. Employers want their employees to be function well in a diversified environment. Business provides an individual with an opportunity to interact well with the external and internal structure. Business communication is an important aspect in an organization. It is a necessity for existence (KonoLynn, 2007). A corporate environment involves of a structured communication process. It is done to serve the purpose of the external and internal stakeholder. It is a way through which one expresses basic needs and desires to serve the desired goals. Overall necessity of business communication is to transmit information. A company is a complex structure. It is necessary to interact with outsiders to serve the multiple purposes various people interest lies in the companys profit and loss (Guffey,M. Rogin,P Rhodes,K ,2009). Scope The scope of business communication defines the overall goals of the product. It should describe the overall purpose of the product. It should give its stakeholders brief information about its benefit. It should suggest how it is different from the rest of the other products available in the market. It must serve the motive behind the launch of the product. Every product has a mission statement which describes its overall features. The product must give its stakeholders clear information about the vision attached with the product. It should comprise all the aspirations of the company (Blakeman, 2008). The strategies should serve the corporate objective of an organization. It should define the overall aim of an organization. The company must adopt a clear strategy for achieving the goals. The management should keep in mind to imbibe all the critical issues attached in good faith. The communication should be impressive and goal oriented. It should involve all the information which is i mportant in achieving the goals (Cornelissen, 2014). Stake holders An organization has to interact with multiple stakeholders including media, government, financial institution, legislature, clients, suppliers etc. An effective two way communication will create a mutual understanding, belief and good faith. It is audience centric, it relates with the interest of the audience. It helps in delivering clear idea to solve the purpose of communication. It tries to generate a long lasting relationship with the stakeholder. It helps in building strong relationship with their alliances, partners etc. Good business communication skills will helps in achieving the purpose for the product launch (Freeman,R., Harrison,J. Wicks,A.2007). Integrated communication is important for a successful launch of a new car. It includes consistent communication of information about the product and its uses. There are various channels to communicate the launch of a new car or any other product. It can be carried through advertisement, public relation, publicity, promotional online techniques etc. an integrated communication approach helps in reaching to the right customer. There is a need to focus on the ongoing trends. The company should focus on the launch process by collecting ongoing business trends. Before launching a product it should focus on understanding the target market. It is important to focus on the threats and opportunity associated with the product. Business communication should describe the whole information about the product. The channel of communication should be properly made. It is important to understand the target market media preferences. For launching a new car it is important to understand latest market n eeds and requirements. Company must use effective tools to communicate the basic idea of the product. It is necessary to keep in mind the strategies followed by the competitors. Communication should serve the purpose of the product. If it does not serve the overall purpose, it is of no use. All the information must be crafted in an organized manner (Krizan, A.et al., 2010) (Six Tips For Developing A Communications Strategy For a High-Profile Event Or Product Launch,2016) (Dwyer,2008). Toyota Business strategies Companies are trying to find a way to engage their employees in better process. This will help in increasing the overall productivity. The most recent study shows that, the organization is using six sigma plans to enhance their overall productivity. These programs are effective in bringing down the overall cost. People are the heart and soul of Toyota. Their communication policies are consumer based. The purpose of Toyota was two folds depending on the benefit of the society and its team members. The rapid growth and diversification has lead to increase in overall productivity. Toyota has a worldwide reach and responsibility. Their common corporate culture is responsible for the overall growth of the product. There is no other opinion about the success of the Toyota motor corporation. It is due to the strong system TPS (Toyota Production System). There system helps in making the best automobiles at the lowest price. Various organizations have adopted the strong system like Toyota. It is following a strong supportive system which is giving its employees a sense of accomplishment. Toyota invests heavily on its people. They consider their employees an asset to them. They focus on challenging the view points of their employees by understanding the difference. This behavior helps them to pull forward against the prevailing difficulties. It believes in strong internal communication. They insist their employees to use simple language while interacting with each other. They support a complex social networking because; they believe that everyone should know everything. They foster vertical relation across geographical boundaries. Employees are asked to join various clubs to enhance the overall pro ductivity. It has its operations in more than 170 countries. Despite of its size and reach, it functions like a small town company. They allow free flow of information across the hierarchy. Personal relationships are given more priority. They are given an opportunity to understand the environment(Takeuchi, et al. 2008)( Liker,2008). Stakeholders and product Stakeholders are the one whose interest resides with the well being of the organization. Their interest resides in the company. There are two type of stakeholder in accompany which are internal stakeholder and external stakeholder. Internal stakeholders Internal stakeholders are the part of the company. There soul interest rest with the companys performance. These are shareholders, employees, investors, board of directors etc. External stakeholders External stakeholders External stakeholders are the outside parties. They are affected by the internal decision of the organization largely. They include suppliers, government, communities and customers. They are important to achieve the goal of the company. Almost every individual are affected by the decision of the company (Hooley,2008) (Rainey,2008). Objectives of business Communication The main purpose of communication is to state the overall features of the product. A communication plan needs to be comprehensive. It should serve the purpose of every individual. Business communication should be focused on the stakeholders interest. All the information given through business communication should be stated keeping in mind the market, whether its a press release, newspaper, TV, Advertisement etc. It should serve the purpose of the organization. Business communication must serve the overall information through the different channels of communication. All the information should focus on the interest of the stakeholder. Only the relevant information should be incorporated in the information brochure. It is important to coordinate the overall efforts of the organization. There should be mutual understanding among different departments of the organization. A business communication should focus on building a favorable atmosphere. The main objective of organizations is to set the goals for achieving the overall productivity. In a highly competitive market it is necessary to develop an integrated communication plan. This would help in building compatibility with the overall productivity. Traditional v/s Non- traditional business communication In this world of digital marketing, business communication plays a key role in increasing the overall sales promotions. Todays, market places are more sophisticated. A sale is not the paramount issue attached with marketing. The creation of brand name has become important to survive more focus is given on building the value of the product. At the same time, communication has become a necessity to stimulate the sales. Customers buy what they see (Parente Hutchinson, 2014). Due to tremendous increase in the communication technology marketers need to be flexible in building their communication strategies. The key to the success of promoting goods through different communication channels is to create direct interest in consumers. Most of the consumers decisions are based on the promotional campaign. There are lot many unseen aspects of the communication channels. Strategy enforcement while choosing the business communication process is very important these days. A traditional communication channel uses media to tell people about the features of the product. An enterprise needs to focus their efforts on measuring the reasonable outcome. These communication channels use the old techniques to communicate the specification of the product (Walter, 2016). These channels are the oldest form of business communication which were adopted earlier to increase the sale. But with growing competition, communication pattern has changed. More focus in earlier time was given on the sales rather on building good relationship. Traditional communication does not serve the motive in this era of globalization (How to create a successful B2B new product launch strategy.2016). Non-traditional communication techniques are growing due to innovation inn technology. Everyone has an access to the internet. With increasing global competition mode of communicating the brand launch is an important aspect for its life. Social media has become an important source of information in everyones life. Strategist should plan launch of their product through creating hype through social networking. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram are the modern source to advertise the detail about the product. It has more global outreach than any other traditional channel of communication. Modern channels are gaining importance in spreading information about a new product. Business communication strategies are an important aspect in creating the hype of the product. A product can only succeed on a long run if the brand promotions are carried properly (Solomon, 2009)( Gudykunst,2003). Communication channel and frequency: Every organization focuses on the communication channel. The new product launch should be managed through various communication channels. The information flows within and outside the organization through different channels. There are various ways to communicate the thought either formally or informally. Both channels help in developing the structure of a launch of a new product. The management has to choose whether they want to distribute the information through formal channels or through informal channels. Formal channels are the proper medium to communicate any information related to the business. In case of a new product launch it is necessary to address the information through a formal channel. These channels are mostly used by the organizations to communicate the formal information. The information flow through newsletter, press release is the part of formal flow of business communication channel. Advantages of formal communication: These are the most effective form of communication. the information flow in a systematic manner. This communication prevails in the systematic atmosphere. The company who follow such practices achieve in a long run. Formal communication channel are hierarchal in nature. It flows from one person to other in a proper form. Disadvantages of formal communication: Formal channel causes restrictions in flow of information from one source to other. They create a serious atmosphere in an organization. Informal flow of information The information flows in an unsystematic manner. There is no proper form or sequence to follow while communicating with the outsiders. This channel is popular these days. Most of the communication is carried informally. Earlier there used to be a proper format to communicate the information. In case of a new product launch more focus need to be given on the communication technique. Informal communication is adopted to enhance the overall capacity of an organization. Advantage of informal communication This type of communication is followed in an unstructured organization. it depends on companys way of doing business. Informal communication channel is gaining importance due to its simplicity. There is an easy feeling to communicate while dealing with the stakeholders. Toyota follows informal communication. It provides more power to the employees of the organization. Disadvantage of informal communication Informal communication can cause loss to the organization. The information is transmitted improperly. In case of a new product launch more focus should be given on the communication channels. It should adopt all those strategies which will be fruitful in a long run. The business communication channel should focus on reflecting the features in the product. How it is different from the other products. A communication strategy needs to be implemented keeping in mind the market atmosphere. It is necessary to identify the goals of a business. It is necessary to keep in mind how the media campaign should be launched. Firstly it is necessary to identify the goals. The purpose of communication must be discussed well before announcing it. Its always better to draw a plan and launch it. Secondly, these days social networking is playing a significant role for promoting the interest of the company. In this age of technology it is necessary to focus on the technology. It helps in sharing the overall information about the product. Its better to collect market information before communicating a new product launch. It is important to understand the objectives of the product. Proper market research before business communication is an added advantage. It is necessary to read the latest market trends(Six Tips For Developing A Communications Strategy For a High-Profile Event Or Product Launch.2016). Metrics: The current communication practice is based on developing formal channels in between various parties. This practice helps in developing the overall focus of an organization. the business communication channel is made to serve the purpose of the product i.e. the Car. Company should adopt a consumer centric approach to deal with the focused customers. In this competitive world it is necessary to focus on the overall business strategies. The business communication provides with a series of guidelines to plan the future of the organization. The consumer plan should be: Consumer centric (it should focus on their consumer class) Goal oriented (strategy driven) (Lewis. et al. 2006) Conclusion: The business communication is an essential activity to serve the interest of the newly product launch. The major practices followed inn business communication of car is based on the consumers. Every business organization should focus on building a strong communication structure which is appealing for the audience. This report focuses on the business communication strategies which will be beneficial on a long run. It is important to adhere to the measure necessary to be taken care while launching any new product. Business strategies should focus on reflecting all the new features. It also differentiates in between the Toyota communication system. It has focused on the formal and informal business channels. Lastly the business communication should focus on overall business goal. It is necessary to understand the importance of the growing competition. Globalization has lead to excessive competition. Business communication act as an important tool to address the needs of the product. It is based on the current necessity and goals of the company. Recommendations With rising global competition and diversification of market business communication techniques should be more attractive. It should be based on the prospective customer. The marketing strategies need to be competitive. The report discusses all the necessary ways of communication both formal and informal channels. The non-traditional techniques are gaining importance due to its outreach. Company must focus on reaching their customer by promoting their brands on social networking. Internal communication and external communication is essential for the survival of the organization. It should focus on building a robust system. Toyota plan should be followed while developing the market strategies. Non-traditional communication should be given more preference in launching a new product. Promotion should be based on the stakeholders. Different stakeholders have different preferences. Cross-cultural communication should be based on the market. Strategist must focus on the cultural environment. It is necessary to conduct a market research before establishing A comprehensive market research is necessary before launching any product. Every market has a different culture. The culture in Asian countries is different from the rest of the world. Its better to conduct the market research before building communication strategies. References Blakeman, R. 2008. The Bare Bones Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communication. UK: Rowman Littlefield Publishers Cornelissen, J.2014. Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theory and Practice. SAGE Dwyer,J.2008. Communication in Business: Strategies and Skills. Pearson Education Australia Freeman,R., Harrison,J. Wicks,A.2007. Managing for Stakeholders: Survival, Reputation, and SuccessSeries in ethics and leadership. USA: Yale University Press Gudykunst,W.2003. Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Communication. SAGE Publications Guffey,M. Rogin,P Rhodes,K.2009. Business Communication: Process and Product.USA: Cengage Learning Hooley.2008. Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning.USA: Pearson Education How to create a successful B2B new product launch strategy.2016. Online. Retrieved from: https://www.avenue-inc.com/ave/how-to-create-a-successful-new-product-launch-strategy/Accessed on 16 September 2016 Kono,T.Lynn,L.2007. Strategic New Product Development for the Global Economy. Germany:Springer Krizan, A.et al., 2010. Business Communication: Business Communication Series. USA: Cengage Learning Lewis,P., et al. 2006. Management: Challenges for Tomorrow's Leaders. USA: Cengage Learning Liker, J.2008. Toyota Culture.USA: Tata McGraw-Hill Education Papa,M. Daniels,T Spiker,B.2007. Organizational Communication: Perspectives and Trends. USA: SAGE Publications Parente, D. Hutchinson.K.2014. Advertising Campaign Strategy: A Guide to Marketing. USA: Cengage LearningCommunication Plans Patel, N.2015.8 Elements of a Robust Product Launch Strategy .Online. Retrieved from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/neilpatel/2015/03/16/8-elements-of-a-robust-product-launch-strategy/#713ee7556851 Accessed on 16 September 2016 Rainey, D.2008. Product Innovation: Leading Change through Integrated Product Development.UK: Cambridge University Press Six Tips for Developing A Communications Strategy For a High-Profile Event Or Product Launch.2016. Retrieved from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescommunicationscouncil/2016/04/21/six-tips-for-developing-a-communications-strategy-for-a-high-profile-event-or-product-launch/2/#402da93566fe Accessed on: 16 September 16, 2016 Solomon, 2009. Launch! Advertising and Promotion in Real Time. USA: Flat World Knowledge Solomon,M. et al. 2013. Marketing: Real People, Real Choices. AU :Pearson Higher Education Takeuchi,H., Osono,E. Shimizu,N.2008. The contradictions that drives Toyotas Success.Online. Retrieed from: https://hbr.org/2008/06/the-contradictions-that-drive-toyotas-success Accessed on 16 September 2016 Walter, V.2016. Crowd funding for Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Innovation Advances in Business Strategy and Competitive Advantage. USA: IGI Global Wilson, L. Ogden, J.2008. Strategic Communications Planning: For Effective Public Relations and Marketing. USA: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Wilson,R. Gilligan,C. 2012. Strategic Marketing Management. UK:Routledge